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University Section


1. Overview

2. Analyse Question

3. Research

4. Essay Structure

5. Tone

6. Paragraphs

7. Argument

8. Introduction & Conclusion

9. Final Draft

10. References



Cambridge Dictionaries Online

Study Tools: Dictionaries, encyclopaedias and more >

10. References


Show your Reading

Making references to other academic literature shows depth of reading and avoids plagiarism. It takes a little time to get used to the correct style and approach, but after viewing these pages a few times, you should feel much more confident when citing authors and compiling a bibliography in the Harvard APA style.



Why are references important?

An introduction by UEfAP. Go>


What it is and how to avoid it. Go>

UsingEnglish Guide to References

Useful quick guide. Go>




Writing a Bibliography (APA Style)

Basic Guide to Bibliographies

From Warwick University. Go>

Writing a List of References

Detailed guide by UEfAP. Go>

Frequently asked questions

Test Yourself

Practice writing a bibilography with this exercise. Go>




Citing Authors (APA Style)

Two Basic Approaches

From the Portsmouth University website. Go>

More detailed guides

Useful Expressions

Introduce your citiations with useful expressions from the University of Manchester's Phrasebank. Go>

Uefap Guide to Direct Quotations

Advice about when and when not to use quotations, with useful language for your essays. Go>

Reporting and Paraphrasing



Vancouver Style

Vancouver Style of Referencing

Guide from Portsmouth University. This style uses footnotes instead of (author, date) references within the text. Go>




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