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University Section


1. Overview

2. Analyse Question

3. Research

4. Essay Structure

5. Tone

6. Paragraphs

7. Argument

8. Introduction & Conclusion

9. Final Draft

10. References



Cambridge Dictionaries Online

Study Tools: Dictionaries, encyclopaedias and more >

8. Introduction & Conclusion


A Strong Start and a Strong Finish

These are short but very important sections of your essay. They provide a framework for the whole text and create the all-important first and final impressions.



Don't feel the introduction should necessarily be written first. Many students like to start by writing part of the main body. By doing this, they get a clearer sense of the overall direction of the essay and then feel ready to write the introduction.

Other students prefer to write a draft introduction first to kick-start their essay and then modify it later. Find a technique that you feel comfortable with.

Canberra University Guide

Detailed and useful guide to writing an introduction. Go>

Introduction Ideas

Consider these different ways of beginning yor essay. The examples come from an English Literature topic. Go>

Useful Phrases

From the Academic Phrasebank by Manchester University. Go>

UVIC Writers' Guide

Advice from the University of Victoria, Canada . Go>





Writing a conclusion that doesn't bring the essay to a sudden end, and doesn't simply repeat the introduction, is a skill that takes time to acquire.

Use these pages to gain awareness of what is required, and apply this knowledge to all kinds of texts you read for study or pleasure. Ask yourself each time if there was a satisfactory end to the text.

Canberra University Guide

An equally valuable guide to writing a conclusion. Go>

Three Key Features

From Massachussets Instititute of Technology. Go>

Finding Your Best Point...

A strategy for revising your introduction and conclusion to make sure they complement each other. Go>

Useful Phrases

From the Academic Phrasebank by Manchester University. Go>




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